African media debates course outline
A course for fourth year, honours and MA students.
      by Guy Berger, 16 February 1999

1. Summary:

One semester course for approximately 15 honours and MA students who will research, through secondary sources and the Internet, the debates facing working journalists across Africa. These findings will be fed into weekly seminar presentations and discussions between February and June. Visiting lecturers from a range of sources will contribute to the teaching.

The outputs of the course:

- Learning outcomes for the students involved are:
familiarity with the key debates and issues in African media today
internet research skills on the topic
presentation software skills
web publishing skills

- Website: The research will be posted on an internet site, to be available to interested parties.

- Training courses: The information gained in the programme will also be taken into courses for working journalists (30 individuals over two courses at Rhodes in 1998) and elsewhere (eg. those arranged by the Nordic-SADC Journalism Center in Mozambique).

- Conference: A conference of experts and opinion leaders will be held to analyse and comment upon the findings of the programme.

- Publication: A publication will be produced, probably in the form of a special edition of the Rhodes Journalism Review, setting out in accessible form the debates as uncovered and analysed by the process.


The idea of a programme to research and teach African Media Debates has support from the following organisations:

Media Institute of Southern Africa: this SADC-based media-freedom organisation has a great interest in seeing this kind of initiative in general, but also because it could feed directly into Misa's own informational programmes and involve Misa members spread across the region.

Nordic-SADC Journalism Centre: this SADC-oriented training institution convened an important seminar on Media and Democracy in early 1998, and is interested in sponsoring a follow-up that would look closely at the changing situation in Southern Africa. The data generated in this programme could be subjected to analysis by experts and stakeholders at such a seminar, and be fed into NSJC training programmes.

SA National Editors Forum: this organisation brings together senior staffers in print, broadcasting and journalism education in South Africa, and has a strong interest in promoting greater understanding amongst local journalists about conditions in the region.

Media Peace Centre: this Cape Town-based NGO collaborated with the Department of Journalism and Media Studies in 1997 to produce a special edition of the Rhodes Journalism Review on the Media and the Truth Commission. Their interest is in seeing another edition dealing specifically about the role of media in contemporary Africa.


You are expected to attend each weekly session, which takes place on Mondays 2.15 to 5pm. Absence without permission is not acceptable - much of the class functions as a team, and your colleagues depend on your presence.

The weighting of the course is 20% of your total marks at J4 level, which means you should be spending the equivalent of two days a week on it. MA students should be spending up to three days a week.

This course outline lists various sources of information, most of which (but not all) are available in the library. A number are included in your course reader. You should treat the list in this course outline as a partial bibliography, and dig up further sources online, in the library or through interlibrary loan. At the end of this programme, I hope to be able to vastly expand the current reading list thanks to your research. A full bibliography will be posted on the website.

MA students should especially concentrate on the research and analysis component of the programme. You will be expected to produce two research papers (unlike J4 students who only do one) during the course. These should include a research methodology statement in them, and the length of your papers should be at least 5000 words (or 15 A4 pages, double spaced in length). Note you will be asked different questions to the J4s in the exams - which count exclusively for your marks for this course. MA students will also be responsible for the design and maintenance of the website. Volunteers to help them are welcome.

You will be expected to:

1. Read up the media history of an African country which has some online media and journalists whom you will be able to interview by email. The list here includes: Zambia, Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Uganda, Kenya, Ghana, Nigeria, and to a lesser extent Namibia, Swaziland, Lesotho and Botswana. Only one student per country will be allowed. Preferences and allocations will be done at the start of the course. At the end of the second week, you should have a summary of the media situation in the given country with reference to: history, current state of press freedom and political-economic regime, extent and character of media, prominent issues and/or people in that country's media. Consult readings on the country you are covering, plus World Yearbooks, Unesco's website, FIEJ's press survey, etc. This report will be edited by a colleague, after which you should code it in HTML and get it posted on the course's website by 15 March.

2. Locate and monitor the online media in your selected country for the duration of the course. Out of the weekly tracking of these, you should complete an analysis of these publications with regard to quality, frequency and other relevant issues like changes over the period, coverage of the media situation in that country, etc. This analysis, amounting to not more than 3000 words or approximately five A4 pages (double-spaced), should be submitted for marking by Friday 21 May, and the corrected versions should be posted on the website by the end of the programme. Note: you may well want to use some of your research gathered here to put into your research papers on the topics covered in the course: for example, if your topic is gender, you can scrutinise the online media's coverage of gender in your chosen country.

3. Develop email (or other - eg. direct, fax) contacts with at least 10 journalists in your selected country, and interview a selection of them on the issues that arise in the programme each week. The results should be compiled into weekly reports for sharing in class starting 15 March, and for weekly postings thereafter on the website . A number of names will be supplied to you, but they are just a start: use them (plus other means - like websites) in order to locate and recruit additional sources.

4. To prepare one research paper (two for MA students) - in formal academic format - on one of the weekly topics in the course:

Media and/in development
Media coverage of famine/poverty and crime
Media and democracy
Government press vs independent press
Internet journalism
Ethical issues
Media and race/ethnicity
Media and gender
Reporting conflict and conciliation
Globalisation of media: impact on Africa
Africa in international media

Your paper must be submitted 10 days in advance of seminar delivery for the course co-ordinator's comments. NOTE: be sure to check the Handbook for what is expected here: (eg. abstract, introduction - do NOT confuse the two, main body of work, conclusion, bibliography; proper referencing). Your work MUST be spell-checked AND manually proofed for errors before handing it in. Failure to do so will lose you 20% off the final mark.

After receiving your work back with comments from me, an amended version must then be returned within 6 days prior to delivery, in order for it to be duplicated in time for your colleagues to read it. This is the version on which your mark will be based, and it should be put on the website by Friday 28 May.

You are also expected to read research papers in advance of the seminar, and to take part in discussion after they have been delivered.

5. Separate from the academic format requirement, you will also do a presentation version of your seminar paper (using powerpoint software) - with which means you will do the actual delivery to the class. The best presentations may subsequently be nominated for (an updated) repeat at the proposed conference following the course.

6. Go through one common class reading and (at least) one designated individual reading each week, and contribute to class discussion on these. You may be asked to lead discussion in weeks when there may not be a seminar paper.

The course entails guest lecturers, and you are expected to make the most use of their presence by asking informed questions, keeping notes, and utilising the information gained. The course will also entail an Internet-Relay-Chat with students doing similar courses in the US and Ghana, and this information should also be used.

Grading for J4 students will be as follows:

15% Examination
5% course work made up of 3% for seminar and 2 % for your online reports.


Each module represents one week's focus. Typically, each class session will feature:

- Verbal reports on research findings from previous week's email research;
- New seminar presentation and discussion (or led discussion of key readings);
- Guest speaker/s or panel (where appropriate)

Between class sessions, you are expected to do the following standard assignments every week:

- Monitor online publications in your country towards your report on Friday 21 May;
- Conduct email research on the topic just covered in that week's class, and compile report for following week's class and which should be coded to go on the website;
- Go through two of the required readings for the upcoming week; there will be one common reading, and the others will be distributed amongst the class.
- Read seminar paper for the upcoming week;
- Work on your own seminar paper and code it for online publication (where appropriate);
- Learn presentation and html skills (where appropriate)

Take note of these tasks because they are referred to just by the heading "standard assignments" in the remainder of this course outline.

Week 1: 22 February
Broadcasting in Africa:
Government vs Public vs. commercial/private or community broadcasting:

NOTE: For this, the first session of the course, you are expected to have read the articles in the the reader as supplied.

Radio as the most far reaching mass medium in Africa. Overview of the history. South Africa as a special example of historical change: apartheid era, new democracy, the rise and fall of IBA. New Broadcasting Bill. Struggles for independent broadcasting in Africa - Radio Phoenix video. Is community radio the future promise or lost opportunity for Africa? What are the roles of religious radio and Worldspace Radio?

Format of session:
Introduction to class - and to the Windhoek Declaration.- Guy Berger.
Discussion of reading: - led by Guy Berger.
Guest speakers: Senior radio editors from SADC countries.
Course outline - discussion.

Further Readings:
Article 19 and Index on Censorship. 1995. Who rules the airwaves? Broadcasting in Africa. London: Article 19 and Index on Censorship.

Head, S. ed. 1974. Broadcasting in Africa. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Heath, C. 1988. Private sector participation in public service broadcasting: the case of Kenya. Journal of Communication, 38:96-107.

Holmes, P. A. 1996. URTNA, Afrovision and Satellite Broadcasting: the birth of a television news exchange system in Africa. The Howard Journal of Communication, 7:139 -149

Misa. 1998. Campaign for the liberalisation of broadcasting.

Salama, G. 1989. Broadcasting in Africa: past, present and future. Media Development, 3:41-42.

Sorenson, SB 1996. Scramble for the African Airwaves, Zebra News, no 28. July 12-15.

Tomaselli, K. 1995. Review essay. Critical Arts.

Wedell, G. ed. 1986. Making Broadcasting Useful: the African Experience. Manchester: University Press.

Standard assignments for next week.
Additional assignments:
Find your online publications.
Develop email contacts and motivate why you want them to help (check anonymity preferences).
Learn basic HTML.
Reading: Bourgault, chapter 7.

Week 2: 1 March
Media Theory and Research:

Applicability of theoretical perspectives on mass media to Africa. How do they explain and critique African media systems and role performance? Relationships between journalism, media studies and communication studies. The past, present and future journalist as a constantly changing profession. How have different theoretical perspectives on media affected the view and self-definition of journalism as profession? Critical perspectives and problems of African media. Language, tribe, traditions as issues in African community media. Role of folk/traditional media. Popular culture.

Format of session:
Research reports
Critique of readings: led discussion
Class discussion: planning the website

Readings: Akioye, Akin A. 1994. Media, communications research, and African development (review article). Journal of Communication v 44 p 82-9 Winter

Chimombo, S and Chimombo, M. 1996. The culture of democracy: language, literature, the arts and politics in Malawi, 1992-1994. Zomba, Malawi: Wasi Publications.

Harbitz, NJ. 1996. Mediums in Zimbabwe's Media. Media, Culture and Society, 18 (4) 669-679

James, SL. 1990. Development of indigenous journalism and broadcast formats: curricular implications for communication studies in Africa. Africa Media Review. Vol 4, No. 1, p1-14.

Obeng-Quaidoo, I. 1985. Culture and communication research methodologies in Africa: a proposal for change. Gazette. 36:109-120.

Uche, L U. 1991. Ideology, theory and professionalism in the African mass media. Africa Media Review vol 5, no. 1, 1-16.

Standard assignments for next week.
Additional assignments:
Reading: to be announced
Complete your country situation research and report.

Week 3: 8 March
Media and/in Development:

Theoretical perspectives on development and impact on policy and performance. Terms like "developing or less developed countries" or "Third World" and politics around these definitions. Responsibility of governments to rural and marginal people's media needs. The role of media in national development, health promotion, education. Historical examples of media involvement in national liberation, repression, unity and conflict. Development vs. Progress – from whose point of view? Journalist as observer or participant in development.

Format of session:
Research reports
Seminar - Guy Berger
Guest speaker - DMA person

Awa, Njoku E. 1988. Communication in Africa: Implications for development planning. Howard Journal of Communications. 1, (3, Fall), 131-144.

Berger, G. 1992. Social Structure and Rural Development in the Third World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bourgault, L. 1994. The Liberian Rural Communications Network: a study in the Contradictions of Development Communication. Journal of Development Communication, 5, 2. June: 57-71.

Bourgault, L. 1995. P 251 - 256.

Electronic Newsletter of African Studies. 1997. Africa and Global Knowledge for Development. Vol. 2. No.2,

Hachten, W. 1993. The growth of Media in the Third World: African failures, Asian successes. Ames: Iowa State University Press.

Haule, J. 1984. Old paradigm and new order in the African context: toward an appropriate model of communication and national development. Gazette. 333:3-15.

Kariithi, N. 1994. The crisis facing development journalism in Africa. Media Development, no 4.
McAnany, E G 1980. The role of information in communicating with the rural poor: some reflections in Mc Ananay Ed. Communications in the Rural Third World. New York: Praeger, 3-18.

Nwankwo, R. 1974. Educational uses of broadcasting. In Head, S.

Pratt, C B and Manheim, J B. 1988. Communication research and development policy: agenda dynamics in an African setting. Journal of Communication. 38 (3) 75-95.

Ugboajah, F O. 1975. Communication of development issues in the Nigerian mass media. (PhD thesis in library at 301.16109669 UGB)

West, Harry G.; Fair, Jo Ellen. 1993. Development communication and popular resistance in Africa: an examination of the struggle over tradition and modernity through media. African Studies Review (v36 p 91-114 April

Standard assignments for next week.
Further assignments:
Read Ronning for next week.
Learn powerpoint.
Your country report posted online by 15 March.

Week 4: 15 March
Media coverage of famine, disease and poverty:
Role of media in natural or man-made catastrophes, solidarity mobilization by press. Victims - or survivors? Analysis of rural and urban poverty in media coverage. Audiences and sources. The Kevin Carter vulture challenge.

Format session:
Research reports
Seminar or led discussion on readings

Deane, J. 1997. A life and death story. Free Press, no1.p7

George, Susan. 1991. How the other half dies: the real reasons for world hunger. New York: Dover.

Gibson, Malcolm D. 1994. AIDS and the African press. Media, Culture & Society v 16 p 349-56 April

Lush, D. 1997. Positive and negative. Free Press, no1.p 5

Moore, D. 1997. Speaking of Sally. Free Press, no1.p 8-9

Ronning, H. 1998. An unholy alliance: The relationship between international media and international aid organisations. Paper presented to conference: Reporting Africa - Return to the Agenda, 22-24 November, Cardiff.

Standard assignments for next week
Additional assignments:
Read Berger

Media and Democracy

Definitions and principles of democracy: Western (European/US) and African, how do they coincide and differ? Is the Freedom of Press equivalent to Democracy? Democracy and accountability of journalists. Traditional African societies vs. modern principles of participation. How does the media play a part in African democratic process – examples from different countries. The recent clampdown on press freedom in several countries around South Africa.

Session format:
Research reports
Seminar or led discussion on readings
Promoting the website


Ansah, P. 1988. In search of a role for the African Media in the democratization process. African Media Review. Vol. 2. No. 2. 1-16.

Barker, J. Liberation or Bust! 1995. Free Press no 6, p. 22

Berger, G. 1998. Media and democracy in southern Africa. Review of African Political Economy, 25:78: 599-610

Best, K. 1996. Facing Adversity. In Handbook for African Journalists, published by the World Press Freedom Committee.

Blake, C. 1997. Democratization: the dominant imperative for National Communication Policies in Africa in the 21th Century. Gazette. Vol. 59. No. 4-5. 253-269.

Bourgault, L M. 1996. Press freedom, the oral tradition and the press in sub-saharan Africa. Journal of Third World Studies. V. 13. Spring. P 57-95.

Bourgault, L M. 1995. Pp 153-179, 206 - 214.

Brice, Kim. 1992. Muzzling the media. Africa Report v 37 p 49-51 July/August

Davidson, J. The price of African press freedom. Media Studies Journal. Vol 9, no. 3.Summer. P53-60.

Faringer, Gunilla L. 1992. Press freedom in Africa. Journal of Communication. v 42 p181-3 Spring

Freedom Forum. 1996. Journalists Under Fire: Media Under Siege. Report on African media forum, Nov 8-11, Cape Town and Johannesburg. Arlington: The Freedom Forum.

International Federation of Journalists. 1994/5. Media for democracy in Africa.

IPI Report, December 1997. World Press Freedom Review 1997.

Karikari, K. 1993. Africa: the press and democracy. Race and Class, 34 (3): 55-66

Lardner, Tunji. 1993. Democratization and forces in the African media. Journal of International Affairs v 47 p 89-93 Summer

Leepile, M. 1997. Developing southern Africn civil society through media - a view from Misa.
Paper delivered to Buntstift Consultation, Johannesburg, April 18-20.

Lister, G. 1992. Want a free press? Go for it. Africa South & East, November. P.38.

New African. 1998. Publish and Survive: African Press Survey. New African. May, 35-42.

Ngugi, C M. 1995. The mass media and democratisation in Africa. Media Development, no. 4, pp 49-52.

Nyakuthemba, E. 1992. Zambia's press defends its freedom. New African (March): 9-10.

Ogbondah, C.W. 1997. Communication and Democratization in Africa. Constitutional changes, prospects and persistent problems for the Media. Gazette. Vol. 59. No. 4-5. 271-294.

Petersen, K. 1997. Overview of Africa. Http://

Pure, S. 1998. Elsewhere in Africa, violence and slayings. IPI report. Second quarter. P5, 27.

Riddle, C. 1989. A profile of Namibian media: the censored debate. Gazette 44: 45-55.

Ruijter, J M. 1989. State and media in Africa: a quarrelsome though faithful marriage. Gazette 44: 57-49.

Skurnik, W A E. 1986. Press freedom in Africa: from pessimism to optimism. In Democracy and Pluralism in Africa, ed. Dov Ronen. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.

Tomaselli, K.G. and Louw, P.E. 1996. Communication models and struggle: From authoritarian determinism to a theory of communication as social relations in South Africa. The Journal of African Communications. Vol.1. No.1. Spring. 18-41.

Towards Press Freedom 1996. Proceedings of the Indaba round-table conference organized by the Willie Musarurwa Memorial Trust. July/August 1995.Zimbabwe.

Van Audenhove, L. nd. Media and Democratisation in Gabon: a political analysis. Http://

Wilcox, D. 1975. Mass media in black Africa: philosophy and control. New York: Praeger.

Wilcox, D L. 1982. Press controls in sub-Sahara Africa. In Curry J L and Dassin, J R (eds) Press Controls around the World. New York: Praeger.

World Association of Newspapers. 1998. Free information: the "best investment against tyranny". Interview with UN secretary general Kofi Annan for World Press Freedom Day, 3 May.

XIX. Article 19. 1993. The law alone cannot guarantee press freedom. Misa Free Press, June. P.8

Zaffiro, J. 1988. Regional pressure and the erosion of media freedom in an African democracy: the case of Botswana. Journal of Communication. Vol 38, no 3. 108- 120.

Standard assignments for next week.
Additional assignments:
read Ronning.

Week 6: 29 March
The Press: Government press vs. independent or alternative press:

African journalists as guide dogs or watchdogs? Is private ownership a guarantee of independence in reporting? How do ownership patterns affect different African media? Is local better than foreign ownership? Is the African independent press guilty of deterioration of quality reporting? Political censorship vs. economic sanctions on freedom of press.

Format of session:
Research reports
Seminar or led discussion of readings
Guest speaker: Misa representative
IRC with US and African counterparts.


Ansah, P. 1991. Blueprint for freedom. Index on Censorship.

Balikowa, D O. 1995. Media marketing: an essential part of a free press in Africa. Media, Culture and Society, Vol. 17, p. 603-613.

Harvard Faculty Club. 1991. Africa and Central Europe: the media and strengthening democratic institutions. Report of the Sixth Media Conference. New York: African-American Institute.

Kasoma, Francis P. 1995. The role of the independent media in Africa's change to democracy. Media, Culture & Society v 17 p537-55, October

Maja-Pearce, A. 1992. The Press in Central and Southern Africa. Index on Censorship. Vol. 21. No. 4. April.

Martin, Robert. 1992. Building independent mass media in Africa. The Journal of Modern African Studies. v 30 p 331-40 June

MISA: 1996. World Press Freedom Day messages, 1996.

MISA. 1996. So This is Democracy? State of the Media in Southern Africa. 1996. MISA. Windhoek.

MISA. 1997. So This is Democracy? State of the Media in Southern Africa. 1997. MISA. Windhoek.

Nthengwe, D. 1995. Drifting towards the hate-media scenario. Free Press, no 5 p.30

Ronning, H. 1997. A prolonged and troubled transition process. Paper presented to North-South Seminar on Media and Democracy, Nordic-SADC Journalism Centre, Maputo, 4 - 7 March.
Kasoma, F. 1997.

Uche, KU 1989. Democratisation of communication in Africa and "History repeats itself syndrome". Gazette, 44 (2):93-105.

Standard assignments for next term.
Additional assignments:
read Berger

Week 7: 12 April (term 2)
Internet Journalism:

Is Internet the gold mine for the African journalist? Leapfrog theory of bridging the gap from extreme poverty to information superhighway. Realities of African access to www and e-mail. US. bias in content. Challenges of Internet from language, gender, race, etc. point of view.

Format of session:
Research reports
Seminar or led discussion on readings
Guest speakers: participants in NSJ editors programme for internet.


Berger, G. 1997. Harnessing information technology for Africa's independent media: plant the crops at the start of the rainy season. Conference on The Sustainability of Independent Media in southern Africa, the Media Institute of Southern Africa (MISA), Victoria Falls, October. (http://journ/staff/berger-misait.html)

Jensen, M. 1998. An overview of internet connectivity in Africa. Http://

Lush, D (ed) 1997. Study and evaluation of the use of information and communication technologies in strengthening private and community broadcasters in the area of news and information gathering. Report for Sangonet.

Mwape, B. 1997. Commercialisation of the Misanet. Paper presented to Misa AGM, Victoria Falls, October 6 -8.

Naidoo, K. 1998. African Media Online. An Internet handbook for African journalists. Occasional Paper No. 3. New Media Laboratory. Rhodes University.

Standard assignments for next week.
Additional assignments:
Read: Kasoma

Week 8: 19 April
Ethical and professional issues:

Reception and influence of Western professional values on freedom, truth, objectivity, privacy, etc. Western values vs African values. Codes of conduct for African journalists and African governments. How to report on controversial issues like HIV/AIDS or corruption? Investigative reporting and the limits/risks involved. Journalists in prison. Media Councils - defence strategy for journalists, or control device by governments?. Training issues.

Session format:
Research reports
Seminar or led discussion on readings
Guest speaker: NSJ speaker


Cooper, M. 1998. When the watchdogs bite. Rhodes Journalism Review, no.16, July, p.25.

Ibie, N. 1993. The commercialisation of the Mass Media in Nigeria: the challenge of social responsibility. Journal of Development Communication, June, 60-68.

Kasoma, F. 1997. The independent press and politics in Africa. Gazette, vol 59 (4-5).

Misa 1994. Free Press focus. Oct/Nov.

Misa. 1997. Media councils focus. Network News from Misa. Vol 1, issue 2.

Misa. 1998. No sacred cows in the quest for media excellence. Network News, vol 2 no 4, July.

Standard assignments for next week.
Additional assignment:
Reading: to be announced

Week 9: 26 April
Media and Gender:

Is affirmative action in gender necessary for Africa's media? Is equal opportunities approach the same as affirmative action? Traditional African values - a conflict with affirmative action in gender? Employment patterns in different African media as regards gender. Analysis of media content and gender portrayal – results from research, locally and internationally. SADC media policy in gender.

Session format:
Research reports
Seminar or led discussion on readings

Coetzee, E. 1997. Sister Namibia: Ngo's needs and expectations from the media. Paper presented to the Buntstift Media Development Workshop, Institute for the Advancement of Journalism, Johannesburg, 18-20 April.

African Women's Media Center. Http://

Lister, G. 1994/5. Media freedom - a women's issue. Free Press, Dec/Jan.

Muthoni Wanyeki, L and Mutume, G. 1996. Pandering to power. Free Press, no 4. P14.
Muzondo, N. 1997. What NGO's expect from the media. Presentation for Women's Action Group (Zimbabwe) to Buntstift Media Development Workshop, Institute for the Advancement of Journalism, Johannesburg, 18 -20 April.

Mwendameseke, N. 1990. The female image in the mass media: the reality and possible remedies. African Media Review, vol 4, no. 2.

Nthengwe, D. 1995. Redressing the balance. Free Press, no. 6. P 24

Nthengwe, D. 1996. Explicit opinions. Free Press, no 5, p. 15

Nthengwe, D. 1996. Whipping up homophobia. Free Press, no 2, p. 14.

Ogundipe-Leslie, M. 19??. The image of women and the role of media in a new political culture in Nigeria. African Media Review

Opubor, T. 1996. Dead-end beat. Free Press, no 2, p 20.

Guest speaker: Naume Ziyambi, Zimbabwe media and gender scholar

Standard assignments for next week.
Additional assignments:
Reading: to be announced

Week 10: 3 May
Media and Race/Ethnicity:

Settler press and nationalist press. Nation-building versus pluralism. Special cases of ethnic issues: Hate Speech used by media in Rwanda.

Session format:
Research reports
Seminar or led discussion on readings
IRC with African and US counterparts.


Article 19. 1996. Broadcasting genocide. Censorship, Propaganda and State-sponsored violence in Rwanda, 1900 - 1994. London: Article 19.

Drogin, B. 1996. Why Africa is harder. IPI Report, April/May. P 18, 28

Fritz, M. 1995. Eyewitness: Rwanda "Words cannot describe..." IPI Report. May/June P 24, 32.

Gatwa, T. 1995. Ethinic conflict and the meda. The case of Rwanda. Media Development, no. 3, pp 18-20.

Lush, D and Borst, B. 1995. Never again? Free Press, no 3. P 12-3

McCullum, H. 1997. Death by Radio. Track Two. April, p 29 -30

Wall, M A. 1997a. The Rwanda crisis. An analysis of news magazine coverage. Gazette. 59 (2) 121-134.

Wall, M A. 1997b. A "Pernicious New Strain of the Old Nazi Virus" and an "Orgy of Tribal Slaughter". A comparison of US news magazines' coverage of the crises in Bosnia and Rwanda. Gazette, 59 (6), 411 - 428.

Standard assignment for next week.
Additional assignments:
Reading: To be announced.

Week 11: 10 May
Reporting conflict and conciliation:

Whether African journalism fans the flames or douses them. Dangers to journalists in violent situations. Reporting wars from the bottom up - landmines, civilians, frontline issues.

Format of session:
Research report
Seminar or led discussion on reading
Guest speaker: media trainer Peter du Toit


Hachten, W A. 1974. Broadcasting and political crisis. In Head, S.

Karnik, NS. Rwanda and the Media: Imagery, war and refuge. Review of African Political Economy. 78:611-623

Landsberg, C. 1998. Wars when friends become enemies. Sowetan, 25 Sept.

Meier, Karl. 1999. Into the house of the ancestors: inside the new Africa. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Tetley, B. Mo, the story of Mohamed Amin, front-line cameraman.
Uka, UL. 1977. The mass media systems in Nigeria: a study in structure, management and functional roles in crisis situations. (PhD thesis in library at 301.16109669 UCH).

Standard assignments for next week.
Additional assignments:
Readings: to be announced

Week 12: 17 May
Globalization of media:

International flow of news. Local attempts by SAPA, PANA, SABA, IPS etc. to counter the North South flow of news. Comparisons of content and cost of local African vs. foreign TV-document. SABC's African channels. Who decides the outputs on African national screens? Deregulation discussion, internationally and locally. Quality control issues. Press conglomerates and their support/suppression of African media content? Research findings of African TV, radio and press content.

Format of session:
Research reports
Seminar or led discussion on readings
Guest speaker: SABC speaker


Adefela, V O. 1986. The flow of news and information in Africa. Background to the present situation. In News Agency Journalism Trainers Workshop: report of proceedings. Harare, June.

Africa News Service. 1995. Special reports: media coverage of Africa. URL:

Clinton, B. 1999. contains remarks by President Bill Clinton to the Conference on U.S.-Africa Partnership for the 21st Century, held in Washington, DC from March 16-18.

Hawk, B. 1994. (ed). The news media and Africa. Issue: a journal of opinion winter/spring (12)1

Hawk, B. 1992. Africa's Media Image, New York: Praeger.

Fauvet, P. The flow of news and information in Africa. In News Agency Journalism Trainers Workshop: report of proceedings. Harare, June.

Traber, M. and Nordenstreng, K. 1992. Few Voices, Many Worlds. World Association of Christian Communication. London.

Standard assignments for next week.
Additional assignments:
Reading: to be announced
Remember: Report on Online media posted on website by 21 May.

Week 13: 24 May
Africa in international news:

Representations of Africa in global print and television, colonial stereotypes, aid, emerging market syndrome, counter strategies like IPS, Panos, internet publishing, etc. Does the global village include an African village?

Format of session:
Research reports
Seminar paper or led discussion on reading


Berger, G. 1997. South Africa reporting Africa. Conference on Africa Reporting Africa, Institute for the Advancement of Journalism, Johannesburg, February.

Corey, C W. 1998. No Parachute Journalism in Post-Despatch. US Information Agency.

Crawley, M. 1998. Africa needs some good PR. Daily Dispatch, 3 December.

Donck, H. 1991. News concerning Africa in Dutch morning newspapers. Gazette 58 (2), 103-116.

Harvard Faculty Club. 1990. Competing for news in the nineties. Report of the Media Conference. New York: African-American Institute.

Dagash,I. 1998. A critical view on how the European media is covering Africa. Paper presented to conference, Reporting Africa, Cardiff, 22- 24 November.

Dare, O. Coverage of Africa. In News Agency Journalism Trainers Workshop: report of proceedings. Harare, June.

Haule, JJ. 1984. International coverage of African events: the dilemma and the future. Gazette, 33:107-114.

Izeze, E E. 1998. Reporting Africa: perspectives from within. Paper presented to conference, Reporting Africa, Cardiff, 22- 24 November.

Munnion, C. Banana Sunday.

Musoke, K. 1998. Speech on the new Africa. Paper presented to conference, Reporting Africa, Cardiff, 22- 24 November.

Puri, S. 1996. ... While in Africa, distant tales resound. IPI Report, Feb/March.

Redfern, P. Uganda premier calls for balanced reporting on Africa. The Nation. 24 November.

Rutayisire, W. 1998. Reporting Africa: way forward. Paper presented to conference, Reporting Africa, Cardiff, 22- 24 November.

Scotton, J F. 1986. Africa's coverage in the international news media. In News Agency Journalism Trainers Workshop: report of proceedings. Harare, June.

Spio-Garbrah, E. 1998. Media coverage of Africa: a new agenda. Paper presented to conference, Reporting Africa: Return to the Agenda, Cardiff, 22- 24 November.

Sapa. 1998. Africa's situation worse than ever. Daily Dispatch, 3 September.

Terrell, RL. 1989. Problematic aspects of US press coverage of Africa. Gazette 43: 131-153.

Wauthier, Claude. 1987. PANA: the voice of Africa. Africa Report. v 32 p 65-7 March/April

Wolpe, H. 1996. It's absolute rubbish. Free Press. No. 3, p 11,13

Policy Information Center background paper "Talking About 'Tribe':
Moving From Stereotypes to Analysis." (part one) (part two)

Remember: seminar paper posted on website by 28 May.

Week 14: 31 May
Closing session:

Summing up
Course evaluation
Plans for Rhodes Journalism Review and Conference presentations


Ainslie, R. 1966. The press in Africa: communications past and present. London: Gollancz

Armour, C. 1998. Review article: Media in Africa and Africa in the Media: An Annotated Bibliography by Gretchen Walsh. London, Melbourne, Munich and New Providence, Hans Zell Publishers, 1996. The Journal of Modern African Studies, Volume 36, Issue 2, pp 333-356
Barton, F. 1979. The Press of Africa. Persecution and Perserverance. London: Macmillan.
Bourgault, L M. 1995. Mass media in sub-saharan Africa. Indiana: Indiana Univ Press.

Eribo, F and Jong-Ebot, W. eds. Press Freedom and Communication in Africa. Trenton NJ: Africa World Press.

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Murdoch, N H. 1998. Review of Bourgault (1995). Journal of Third World Studies, 15. 1. Spring. P 269 - 71.

Mytton, G. 1983. Mass communication in Africa. London: Edward Arnold.

Nieman Reports 1992. Vol. XLVI. No. 4. (Special edition on the future of the media in Southern Africa).

Opondo, O. 1998. New courses needed in journalism training – seminar. The Nation (Kenya), Monday 12 October.
African Studies Center at Penn State Univ,USA

Southern African Migration Project
"African Studies Internet Resources"
"Union List of African Newspapers Project--Electronic Newspapers of
Sub-Saharan Africa"

"African Studies Internet Resources"
"Union List of African Newspapers Project--Electronic Newspapers of
Sub-Saharan Africa""